Richardson, G.E. (2002) The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of clinical psychology, 58(3), 307-321.
Resiliency and resilience theory is presented as three waves of resiliency inquiry. The identification of resilient qualities was the first wave characterized through phenomenological identification of developmental assets and protective factors. The second wave described resilience as a disruptive and reintegrative process for accessing resilient qualities. The third wave exemplified the postmodern and multidisciplinary view of resilience, which is the force that drives a person to grow through adversity and disruptions. Application of resilience using an educational and practical framework provides a means for connecting with and nurturing a client’s resilience. Practical paradigms of resiliency that empower client control and choice are suggested.